The log of the hourly wage is the dependent variable. The gap uses a five-year average of wages from to There are three groups of workers whose wages have been affected by the decline of unionization. First, there are the remaining union members, who according to research have experienced a decline in the earnings premium that comes from belonging to a union—a decline especially large for female members. For instance, the union wage premium fell over the to period by nearly a third for private-sector women.
The estimates referenced are from Figure 3.
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Press, Workers not covered by unions—those who are neither in a union themselves nor covered by a union contract—are almost twice as likely 4. Union density is the share of workers in similar industries and regions who are union members.
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For the The effects of union decline on the wages of nonunion women are not as substantial because women were not as likely to be unionized as men were in The 10 states that had the least erosion of collective bargaining saw their inflation-adjusted median hourly compensation grow by The 10 states that had the most erosion of collective bargaining saw their inflation-adjusted median hourly compensation grow by 5.
Erosion is measured by the percentage-point decline in the share of workers in the state covered by a collective bargaining contract. Valerie Wilson and William M. The regression analysis producing this estimate controlled for education, experience, race, citizenship status, geographic division, industry, and occupation. Data are unadjusted for factors such as demographics and employer size. Department of Labor. In , women made up Service occupations include protective service, food preparation and serving, healthcare support, building and grounds cleaning and maintenance, and personal care and service.
EPI analysis of microdata from the Current Population Survey finds that hourly wages for black workers represented by unions are Hispanic workers represented by unions are paid In contrast, non-Hispanic white union workers have a smaller—9. The regression analysis producing this estimate controlled for education, experience, gender, race, citizenship status, geographic division, industry, and occupation.
Richard Trumka, speech given at the Steelworkers convention , July 1, Benjamin Amick et al.
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Overall, unionization is associated with a 14 to 32 percent drop in traumatic injuries and a 29 to 83 percent drop in fatalities. See Alison D. The federal standard would include an assessment of risk factors such as staffing levels , a post-incidence response procedure, employee participation in the creation of a plan, and prohibition on retaliation against an employee who may seek legal assistance after an incident.
See also a Government Accountability Office report that found that workplace violence is a serious and growing concern for 15 million health care workers and can be prevented through violence prevention programs: U. Eighty-seven percent of private-sector workers in the highest 10 percent of wage earners have the ability to earn paid sick days, compared with only 27 percent of private-sector workers in the lowest 10 percent.
Videt and de Winter cite A.
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Department of Labor, July 21, Adjusted data are based on analysis of fourth-quarter Employment Cost Index microdata as presented in Table 4. Department of Labor Statistics Working Paper no. Union—nonunion gaps in access to paid vacation and holidays are much narrower in state and local governments because teachers make up a large portion of state and local government employment and they are not usually offered paid vacation. Respondents were asked whether they or their spouses belong to a union.
Labor unions in the United States
The sample excludes all workers who say their schedules never change. DB pensions such as those historically negotiated by unions provide more secure, adequate, and egalitarian retirement incomes than k -style DC plans. In contrast, employers that offer k -style plans typically require workers to contribute to the plans in order to receive an employer match, and these workers shoulder all the investment risk.
Income estimate is for all seniors age 65 and older, whether retired or not. Rubinstein and John E. Jacob S. Press, , Employers, where law permits, may voluntarily recognize a union based on a simple showing of majority support from the employees. There are no punitive damages or criminal charges. The most serious penalty, a bargaining order to work with the union on a first contract, is often ineffectual as the anti-union campaign continues.
A Chicago study found that 82 percent of employers hired anti-union management consultants. A notice of proposed rulemaking from the U. Annette Bernhardt et al. Another study of 62 union-representation campaigns launched in Chicago in found that 49 percent of employers threatened to close or relocate all or part of the business if workers elected to form a union. Testimony of Guerino J. In the Chicago study, for nearly all of petitions filed with the NLRB to represent previously unorganized workers, the majority of workers supported unionization when the petitions were filed, but unions were victorious in only 31 percent of these campaigns.
Because the law gives employers the right to multiple levels of review by an administrative law judge, then by the full NLRB, and then by appellate courts , delays between the union election and the final results can last for years. It is hard to isolate the decision of a state to become RTW from other legislative changes or to separate the RTW effect from the many factors, including recessions, that influence state labor market conditions. The most recent and most methodologically rigorous studies conclude that the policy has no statistically significant impact whatsoever.
According to Gordon Lafer in The One Percent Solution , the argument that budget deficits were the result of overspending bureaucrats and overly generous union contracts did not fit the facts: there was no statistical correlation between the size of budget deficits and the presence or strength of labor unions. In the wake of Act 10, Wisconsin enacted a broad rewrite of its civil service law, lengthening the probationary period for new employees during which time they can be fired for any reason and centralizing hiring with the Department of Administration, a highly politicized agency; union representatives fear the law will lead back to a system where political appointees have disproportionate power to reward friends and punish enemies.
The provision was passed as part of the state budget. A split decision effectively upholds the ruling of the lower court. Janus v. Docket No. Jake Rosenfeld finds that unions increase voter turnout, especially in the private sector. Press, ], — EPI has researched unpaid internships and part-time work.
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Many news articles have covered the plight of student athletes, who generate substantial sums for their universities but earn no pay themselves. Uber drivers have been trying to organize in Seattle but the company is fighting it, requiring its customer service representatives to call drivers with a script arguing that it would be bad for them.
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Download PDF Press release. Figure A. Year Union membership Share of income going to the top 10 percent Chart Data Download data The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel. The data underlying the figure. Share on Facebook Tweet this chart. Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website. Figure B. Figure C. Private sector Public sector Her analytical strategy is to examine the interplay between the elements and the outcomes achieved in each case study and to infer possible relationships between them.
Useful summary tables of findings are provided within each case study to help the reader navigate the level of detail reported.
ARPA: Are Australian trade unions part of the solution, or part of the problem?
In Chapter Five, through within-case and cross-case comparisons, Tattersall identifies five coalition strategies that lead to success: choosing fewer, rather than more, coalition partners; choosing strong coalition leaders; connecting the mutual self-interest of coalition partners with a justice agenda; carefully planning the timing of coalition activities, taking advantage of legislative and electoral opportunities; and getting the local organizations on-side to increase political influence.
These recommendations, derived from her extensive and transparent analytical process, and based on data collected from multiple sources, appear to be both credible and specific enough to be useful to coalition organizers. These two propositions could be applicable in a variety of contexts, and could lead to the development of new theory or the Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide. Forged from a partnership between a university press and a library, Project MUSE is a trusted part of the academic and scholarly community it serves.