The Creed of Half Japan

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See our disclaimer. Customer Reviews. Write a review. See any care plans, options and policies that may be associated with this product. Email address. Please enter a valid email address. These conflicts came at many periods in his life ; they cannot be said to have shortened his days, for he lived to be over eighty, but they were evidently the result of the sorrows and anxieties which embittered the later years of his life. The end had probably been drawing on for some time; strange to say, it was hastened by a meal of dried boar's flesh, of which he partook in the house of Chanda , the blacksmith—a proof that abstinence from flesh cannot have been an integral portion of the early rules of Buddhism.

The extent of his influence and the high esteem in which he was held throughout Central Asia are shown by the eagerness with which the surrounding tribes craved for a portion of his cremated bones for purposes of reverence and adoration. The evidence to hand seems to show that it was the strong ruling hand of the master that alone was able to preserve the unity of the large number of his disciples and followers in his later years. There is a northern tradition of a rival Council held outside the Grotto, whilst the official Council within was pursuing its labours.

The inference seems to be a legitimate one, that north and south were independent of one another. Was it permissible for the monks to keep a little salt in a horn, in case the food supplied by the charitable should contain none? Was it permissible to dine after midday, when the sun cast shadows more than two inches in length? Was it permissible for brethren belonging to the same community to keep the sabbaths separately? Might the brethren drink palm-wine, sit on elaborate cushions, handle gold and silver , etc.? We can see how strong was the current of party feeling from the question about the sabbath.

The opposing parties could evidently no longer meet together for the joint celebration of the customary observances, and the tension between the monks of the east and west was very great. A leading part in the Synod was taken Kern, vol. Before a third Council was summoned, India had undergone the shock of invasion, and Alexander's victorious arms had penetrated as far as the Punjaub.

The immediate effect on Buddhism of the Macedonian invasion was not so great as might be imagined. The strictly Hellenistic influences came later: the immediate effect lay in the shock and terror with which the weak princelets and peoples of India must have viewed the advancing invader, and the despair which must have paralyzed every one. A mere adventurer, the son of a barber, who had found his way to Alexander's camp, conceived the bold idea of raising himself to the throne which its feeble occupants left practically unprotected.

After trying in vain to engage Alexander in further enterprises, Chandragupta bided his time till the conqueror's death gave him the opportunity for action. Then a successful mutiny made him master of the Punjaub , the possession of which secured for him the command of the necessary sinews of war. A few months later we see him master of Magadha , with a capital at Pataliputra and dominions extending from the mouths of the Ganges to the Indus , from the Himalayas to the Vindhya.

Chandragupta was the founder of the so-called Mauryan dynasty ; he first defied Seleucus Nicator, and then entered into an alliance with him, compacted by a marriage with the Greek king's daughter. It was to his court that Megasthenes [35] was sent as minister resident of the Seleucid monarch , and it is to Megasthenes that Europe owes its first just notions of India. Chandragupta was not a Buddhist , and he has no importance for the historian of religions.

He is, nevertheless, a personage far too weighty to be passed over without mention.


Chandragupta B. His coronation , for some unknown reason , was deferred for some two or three years after his accession, a fact which inclines us to believe that in the early years of his reign he may have met with a good deal of opposition. He soon took political measures for acquainting his subjects with his change of views ; and he has left us a series of edicts , inscribed on rocks and pillars in different parts of India , which give us our best insight into the character of his religious aspirations.

Whatever his religious views were, he was not ashamed to publish them abroad, for he sent embassies [36] to many of the leading. Hellenic sovereigns of Western Asia , and the treaty of amity which he concluded with Antiochus Theos in B. It is also reasonable to suppose that he laboured at the Council for the promotion of those views which he had so persistently advocated in the long succession of rock edicts.

From the materials at hand, Dr. We may accept them with confidence. Edict No.

The Creed of Half Japan: Historical Sketches of Japanese Buddhism (Classic Reprint)

Healing herbs, medicinal for man and medicinal for beasts , wherever they were lacking, have everywhere been imported and planted. On the. The Indian states and peoples need not delay us long. Nor need we linger over Ceylon.

Theos , the unfortunate monarch who inherited the splendour but not the genius of his more illustrious father, Antiochus I. He had only just come to the throne when the Edicts containing his name were published, and we must therefore, I believe, refer the allusions to the state of the Syrian Kingdom to his father's reign rather than to his own. It was to Antiochus I. In Antiochus I. In the wars which Antiochus I. The plant was almost extinct in the West in Pliny's time though it is still, I believe, to be found in India , [44] but it is to be found engravers on the coins of Cyrene as the emblem of the city, and there has been found a silver cup from Cyrene, with a representation of the king himself personally superintending the packing, weighing, and dispatching of the precious herb.

We can also imagine that Antiochus II. Stoicism was already a power in the world of philosophy and morals , and Stoicism is notoriously a semi-oriental mode of thought.

The Creed of Half Japan: Historical Sketches of Japanese Buddhism

Macedonia must have been full of men who had been in Central Asia and India in those days of constant coming and going, and there must have been a great interest taken in things Indian. When Alexander took Babylon , he had the books in the library sent to his old tutor Aristotle , who, we may be sure, appreciated the gift , and found some way of discovering the contents of the books before they reached their final resting-place in the library of Alexandria. One of Alexander's successors, Cassander, who thoroughly disapproved of Alexander's policy of adopting Oriental habits and ways of life , had, living at his court, a philosopher named Euhemerus, who had travelled in Asia , at Cassander's request, and had returned with stories which had gained for him the reputation of a liar.

And yet much that Euhemerus related accurately described what must have been going on in Buddhism at the time of his visit. The island of Panchaia may have been an Utopia ; the history of the earthly life of Zeus before he became a god , which he brought back with him, may have been a fabrication ; still, the process described was exactly the process which was going on in Buddhism.

He had towered high above his compeers in wisdom , if not in strength, and had possessed that magnetic influence which compelled men to walk according to his precepts.

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He had certainly demanded personal loyalty to himself from all his followers, for he had only received them into his Order after a threefold expression of belief—in the Law, the Order, and the Buddha.